© Hilmar Alquiros  道 德 經 Dào Dé Jīng Project: 2000-2020  All Rights Reserved Impressum 

72
001
045

 

sum:

4705
4749

第七十二章
dì qī shí èr zhāng

True Authority

Wahre Autorität

 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

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W: Wáng Bì  王弼 (226–249) < +250
H:  Héshàng Gōng  河上公  > +100
F:
  Fù Yì  傅奕 (554−639) +574 / < -202

 

+ New Discoveries:   1 2 3 4 5

G:  Guōdiàn  郭店 ~ -300
M: 
Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 A < -
206
m: 
Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 B
< -179
B:  Běi Dà 北大  ~ -150, ~ -100

 

Raw texts s. below / Rohtexte s. unten!

© 2016 Hilmar Alquiros

 

No.
sum

Wáng Bì 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

Analogous
Sinngemäß

72.a
001
026

 No Restriction, no Pressure: Internal Authority

Keine Beschränkung, kein Druck: Innere Autorität

 

72 - True Authority

 When people do not awe the authorities, then the Great Authority will come.
 Without constriction
be their place to
dwell,
without suppression their place to live: for only not suppressed, they are thereby not depressed!

 01-06

 

 Therefore, wise men know themselves, but do not note themselves. With self-esteem, yet not with self-overestimation: hence, they leave this and prefer that.

 07-11

 

 

72 - Wahre Autorität

 Fürchtet das Volk die Autoritäten nicht mehr, dann kommt die Große Autorität.
 Ohne Einengung
sei ihr Platz zum Wohnen, ohne Unterdrückung sei ihr Raum zum Leben: denn nur nicht unterdrückt sind sie darum nicht be-drückt!

 01-06

 

 Darum kennen weise Menschen sich selbst, aber beachten sich nicht selbst. Mit Selbstwert-gefühl, nicht jedoch Selbst-Überschätzung las-sen sie daher dies und wählen das.

 07-11

 

 

James Legge, 1891 (1966): Preface Xii-Xiii:

“… there exists now in the India Office a translation of the Tâo Teh King in Latin, which was brought to England by a Mr. Matthew Raper, and presented by him to the Royal Society, of which he was a Fellow, on January 10th, 1788. The manuscript is in excellent preservation, but we do not know by whom the version was made. It was presented, as stated in the Introduction, p. 12, to Mr. Raper by P. de Grammont, “Missionarius Apostolicus, ex-Jesuita.” The chief object of the translator or translators was to show that “the Mysteries of the Most Holy Trinity and of the Incarnate God were anciently known to the Chinese nation.” The version as a whole is of little value. The reader will find, on pp. 115, 116, its explanation of Lâo’s seventy-second chapter; – the first morsel of it that has appeared in print.

 „Prima explicatio juxta interpretes.“ / “Alia explicatio.”

 民不畏威, 則大威至 ...

1. Populus, ubi jam principis iram non timet, nihil non audet ut jugum excutiat, resque communis ad extremum discrimen adducitur. / 1. Populus si non ita timet principis majestatem, sed facile ad eum accedit, majestas non minuitur, immo ad summum pervenit.

 無狎其所居, 無厭其所生 –

2. Ambitio principis non faciat terram angustiorem, et vectigalium magnitudine alendo populo insufficientem ; numquam populus patriae pertaesus alias terras quaeret. / 2. Vectigalibus terra si non opprimitur, sua quisque contentus alias terras non quaeret, si se non vexari populus experitur.

 夫唯不厭, 是以不厭!

3. Vitae si non taedet, neque patrii soli taedebit. / 3. Vitae si non taedet, nec patrii soli taedebit.

 是以聖人:自知. 不自見.

4. Quare sanctus sibi sempre attentus potentiam suam non ostentat. / 4. Quare sanctus majestatis fastum non affectat, immo similem se caeteris ostendit.

 自愛. 不自貴

5. Quia vere se amat, non se pretiosum facit; [vel quia sibi recte consulti non se talem aestimat cujus felicitati et honori infelices populi unice servire debeant, immo potius cum se reputat qui populorum felicitati totum se debeat impendere.] / 5. Sibi recte consulens, populorum amans, non se pretiosum et inaccessibilem facit.

 故去彼取此。

6. Ergo illud resecat, istud amplectitur. / 6. Quidquid ergo timorem incutere potest, [hoc evitat; quod amorem conciliat et benignitatem, se demonstrat hoc eligi et ultro amplectitur.] (p. 115-116)

 

 

72.01.
001
004

不畏
mín bù wèi
威,
wēi,

people / das Volk Leute.

not / nicht {un-}.

to fear; to avoid, to eschew; to respect, to esteem / fürchten; meiden, scheuen; respektieren, achten.

majesty; might; dignity; awe-inspiring / Majestät, Macht; Würde; Ehrfurcht gebietend.

When people do not fear {awe; respect}
the might {authority} [anymore],

Wenn das Volk nicht [mehr] fürchtet {Ehrfurcht_zeigt_vor; respektiert}
die
Autorität {Macht},

When people do not fear anymore the authorities,

Fürchtet das Volk die Autoritäten nicht mehr,

When they don't fear authorities,

Autorität nicht fürchten mehr

72.02.
005
008

大威**
dà wēi zhì

then / dann.

big, great / groß_(-artig).

authority {might} / Autorität {Macht}. [cf. Henricks, 1989 p. 170].

大威 ["Heaven's death penalty for  the ruler" / "des Him-mels Todesstrafe für den Herrscher"].

to come / kommen. *+

then the Great Authority {might} [will] come.

dann [wird] die große Autorität {Macht} kommen.

then the Great Authority [will] come.

dann [wird] die Große Autorität kommen.

comes Great Authority to these.

kommt deren Höchste hinterher.

72.03.
009
013

[]
wú xiá [xiá]

其所居,
qí suǒ jū,

without (no) {non-being, nothing_(-ness) / ohne (kein) {nicht-sein, Nichts}.

constriction {recklessness} / Einengung {Rücksichtslo-sigkeit}. [or xiá narrow(-minded) / eng(stirnig); in Héshàng Gōng  河上公 and text variations]

無狎 lit.: without (any) restriction; untouched (without coarse familiarity) / ohne Einschränkung; unangetastet (ohne plumpe Vertraulichkeit).

here: their / ihr; not “they / nicht „sie“.

place / Raum.

to dwell / Wohnen.

lit.: place to dwell / Ort zum Wohnen.

Without constriction {recklessness}
(be) their place to dwell,

Ohne Einengung {Rücksichtslosigkeit}
(sei) ihr Platz zum Wohnen,

Without constriction be their place to dwell,

Ohne Einengung sei ihr Platz zum Wohnen,

Do not constrict their dwelling place,

Sei unbeengt ihr Wohnraum eben,

72.04.
014
018

無厭
wú yàn

其所生
qí suǒ shēng

without (no) {non-being, nothing_(-ness) [ / ohne (kein) {nicht-sein, Nichts}.

suppression {repression} / Unterdrückung {Unterwer-fung}.

here: their / hier: ihr; not “they / nicht „sie“.

place / Raum.

live / Leben.

所生 place to live / Raum (Ort) zum Leben.**

without suppression {repression}
(be)
their place to live:

ohne Unterdrückung {Unterwerfung}
(sei) ihr Raum zum Leben:

without suppression be their place to live:

ohne Unterdrückung sei ihr Raum zum Leben:

do not suppress their living space:

nicht unterdrückt ihr Raum zum Leben:

72.05.
019
022

夫唯不厭,
fū wéi bù yàn,

*** in fact, that's why (the text says) / tatsächlich, darum (sagt der Text).

only / nur.

not / nicht {un-}.

suppressed {adverse; to loathe} / unterdrückt {widrig; verabscheuen}.

for only not suppressed {adverse}

denn nur nicht unterdrückt {widrig},

for only not suppressed,  

denn nur nicht unterdrückt

for only not suppressed their zest,

denn nur, wenn unterdrückt nicht mehr,

72.06.
023
026

是以不厭!
shì yǐ bù yàn!

是以 there/fore / da/her.

not / nicht {un-}.

depressed  suppressed {adverse; to loathe} / bedrückt, unterdrückt {widrig; verabscheuen}.****

there/fore they are not depressed!

da/her sind sie nicht bedrückt!

they are therefore not depressed!

sind sie darum nicht bedrückt!

thereby they will not be depressed!

sind sie dann nicht bedrückt daher!

 

* in Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 B:  則大   
jiāng [here: will / hier: wird] additional; also in  Wáng Bì  王弼 commentary / zusätzlich; auch in Wáng Bì  王弼 Kommentar [Gāo Míng, 1996 p. 180].

* 72.01. + 72.02. "Wenn die Bevölkerung keine Angst vor den Dingen, dir zu fürchten sind, empfindet, / dann drohen noch mehr zu fürchtende Dinge einzutreten." [Shen, 2004 p. 514, a. Simon p.221].

** 72.03. + 72.04. "[Only] being without recklessness is what makes him [the ruler] have rest. / [Only] being without repression is what makes him [the ruler] have [= keep] [his] life". / ~ "[Nur] ohne Rücksichtslosigkeit zu sein ist es, was ihn [den Herrscher] Ruhe haben lässst.  / [Nur] nicht unterdrückend zu sein ist es, was ihn [den Hrrscher] [sein] Leben haben [= bewahren] lässt". [Wáng Bì  王弼 / Wagner, 2003b p. 363; ruler-orientated / Herrscher-orientiert].

or people = object:
"It is beause you do not oppress them / that they are not oppressed".
[Ariane Rump, 1979 p. 195 / Wing-tsit Chan].

72.03. "This means that the heart serves as dwelling of the spirits. One ought to enlarge and not to narrow it." + 72.04. "...whereby man lives is by possessing the spritis. The spritis rely on emptiness and enjoy stillness. If one does not restrict food and drink, one despises Tao. By thinking of beauty and evil, by filling one's stomach and spoiling one's fortune one disperses the spiritis." [Héshàng Gōng  河上公 / Erkes, 1958 p. 122, 238].

*** (husband, man, worker); Classical chinese:  this, that, he she, they; final particle = exclamatory, initial particel (here) = introducing an opinion / (Ehemann, Mann, Arbeiter) hier: Klassisches Chinesisch: dies, jenes, er sie, sie (Plural), Anfangspartikel = ausrufend, Anfangs-Partikel (hier) = Meinung einführend.

*** 72.05. + 72.06. "It is a fact that only as he does not repress, / he will not be repressed [and ditto for recklessness]" / ~ "Es ist eine Tatsache, dass nur so er nicht unterdrückt, / wird er nicht unterdrückt werden [und dito für Rücksichtslosigkeit]". [Wáng Bì  王弼 / Wagner, 2003b p. 364; ruler-orientated / Herrscher-orientiert].

72.b
027
045

Self-Esteem, not Self-Overestimation

Selbstachtung, nicht Selbstüberschätzung

No.
sum

Wáng Bì 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

72.07.
027
032

是以聖人:
shì yǐ shèng rén:

自知.
 zì zhī.

是以 there/fore / da/rum.

wise / weise.

men / Menschen.

themselves / sich selbst.

to understand {to know; to be_aware of} / verstehen {erkennen;gewahr_sein}. {or: to master, to control, to rule / beherrschen, kontrollieren, herrschen [H.-G. Möller, ch. 65, 70, 71]}. *

There/fore wise men:
themselves
they know {their_own_knowledge},

Da/rum weise Menschen:
sich selbst (er-)_kennen sie,

Therefore, wise men know themselves,

Darum kennen weise Menschen sich selbst,

So wise men know themselves,                

So Weise zwar sich selbst erkennen,

72.08.
033
035

不自

bù zì

見.

jiàn.

not / nicht {un-}.

themselves / sich selbst.

to note {making_a_show} / beachtend {zur_Schau_tra-gend}.

(but) not themselves
they note {making_a_show}.

(aber) nicht sich_selbst
beachtend {
zur_Schau_tragend}.

but do not note themselves.

aber beachten sich nicht selbst.

                                            ...don't seem
to note themselves.                          

doch nicht sich selbst-beachtend nennen.

72.09.
036
037

自愛
zì ài

themselves / sich selbst.

lit.: to love / lieben.

自愛 self/-esteem {love_for_themselves} / Selbst/wert-gefühl {sich_selbst_lieben}; self-respect, self-love, self-regard / Selbstachtung, Selbstliebe, Selbstbeachtung.

With self/-esteem {love_for_themselves},

Mit Selbst/wertgefühl {sich_selbst_lieben},

With self-esteem,

Mit Selbstwertgefühl,

                                 With self-esteem,

Sich schätzend,                                 

72.10.
038
040

自貴
zì guì

not / nicht {un-}.

themselves / sich selbst.

to exalt / erhöhen.

yet no {not}
self/-overestimation {exalting_
themselves}:

jedoch keine {nicht}
Selbst/überschätzung {Selbst/verherrlichung}:

yet not self-overestimation:

nicht jedoch Selbst/überschätzung:

themselves not overestimating:

                        überschätzend nie:

72.11.
041
045

去彼
qù bǐ

取此。
qǔ cǐ。

hence / daher.

to leave / lassen.

this / dieses. = 72.03.a, 72.04.a, 72.05.

to prefer / bevorzugen.

that / jenes. ) 72.03.b, 72.04.b, 72.06.

therefore they leave this [= making_a_show & exalting_themselves] and
prefer
that [= their_own_knowledge &   love_for_themselves].

daher lassen sie dieses [= zur_Schau_tragen & sich_selbst_verherrlichen] und
bevorzugen jenes
[= sich selbst (er-)_kenne & sich_selbst_lieben].

hence, they leave this and prefer that.

daher lassen sie dies und wählen das.

preferring that, yet this abating.

dies lassen, jenes wählen sie.

 

 

* or: to master, to control, to rule / beherrschen, kontrollieren, herrschen [H.-G. Möller, ch. 65, 70, 71].

 

 

POETIC!

poetic!

           

72
001
045

 

sum:

4705
4749

第七十二章
dì qī shí èr zhāng

True Authority

Wahre Autorität

 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

 

北大 Běi Dà 72

B:     不畏威則大        威至狎其所居     [民]不畏威...
     厭其所生夫唯是以不厭                 毋厭其[所]生...
     是以聖人自        智而不自見也,
     自愛    不自貴也。故去彼    取此

 

馬王堆 Mǎwángduī  72

M: □  □ □     則大 □ □  □            所 居   
     毌猒亓所生     夫唯弗    □  □  □
   
      □ □  □  □  □ □
     □  □ □  □  □        
      □  □     
自貴故去
    取此   

 

馬王堆 Mǎwángduī  72

m: 不畏 ‧  則大        所居        [畏]?!     +將
     毌猒亓所生    夫唯弗   
是以不   
     是以聖人自知   
     不自見也   
     自愛    不自貴故去罷而取此   

 

 Guōdiàn 72

G: * * *

 

 

王弼 Wáng Bì 72

W:    不畏則大            無狎其所居
     無厭其所生夫唯不厭是以不厭
     是以聖人自知            不自見
     自愛
        不自貴故去彼    取此

 

河上公 Héshàng Gōng 72

H:     不畏威則大        威至    無狎其所居
     無厭其所生夫唯不厭是以不厭
     是以聖人自知        不自見
     自愛        不自貴故去彼    取此

 

傅奕 Fù Yì 72

F:     不畏威則大        威至無狎其所居
     其所生是以
     是以聖人自知    不自見
     自愛    不自貴故去彼    取此

 

Raw texts s. below / Rohtexte s. unten!

© 2016 Hilmar Alquiros

 

           
 

Raw texts / Rohtexte:

+ New Discoveries:   1 2 3 4 5

G:  Guōdiàn  郭店 ~ -300
M: 
Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 A < -
206
m: 
Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 B
< -179
B:  Běi Dà 北大  ~ -150, ~ -100

 

~ Textus Receptus:    1 2 3 4 5

W: Wáng Bì  王弼 (226–249) < +250
H:  Héshàng Gōng  河上公  > +100
F:
  Fù Yì  傅奕 (554−639) +574 / < -202

 

B:[民]不畏威,則大威至矣。毋柙其所居,毋厭其[所]生。夫唯弗厭,是以不厭。是以聖人自智而不自見也,自愛而不自貴也。故去被取此。
智(知), 被(彼).

M:□□□畏﹦則大□□□矣‧母閘亓所居毌猒亓所生夫唯弗猒是□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□而不自貴也故去被取此

m:民之不畏‧則大畏將至矣毌狹亓所居毌猒亓所生夫唯弗猒是以不猒是以聖人自知而不自見也自愛而不自貴也故去罷而取此

G: * * *

W:民不畏威,則大威至。無狎其所居,無厭其所生。夫唯不厭,是以不厭。是以聖人自知不自見。自愛不自貴。故去彼取此。

H:民不畏威,則大威至。無狎其所居,無厭其所生,夫唯不厭,是以不厭。是以聖人自知,不自見,自愛不自貴。故去彼取此。

F:民不畏威,則大威至矣。無狎其所居,無猒其所生。夫惟無猒,是以無猒。是以聖人自知,而不自見,自愛,不自貴。故去彼取此。

 

 

 

 

Mǎwángduī: ch. 1-37 after 38-81; 24 before 22 + 23, 41 before 41, 80+81 after 66.

Mǎwángduī: Kap. 1-37 nach 38-81; 24 vor 22 + 23, 41 vor 41, 80+81 nach 66.

 

72

Etymological Notes:

 

Simple pictograph 民. A either 女 or 母 with the lower part (uterus) from which people come. Meaning: people.

Simple pictograph. Unclear origin. Possibly a root which us pulled up and is thus NOT there. Meaning: “no”.

Augmented pictograph 畏. A man 大 with a mask 田 and a weapon. Meaning: fear.

From woman 女 and weapon 戌. Meaning to dominate.

From cowry 贝貝 and knife 刀. Meaning: rule. (seperating the cowries with a knife)

Simple pictograph 大. Front prifile of a man 大. Meaning: large.

Simple pictograph 至. An arrow in the ground indicating it has reached its mark. Meaning: to reach.r.

無 wú mó  火+ 8 strokes  negative no not; lack have no Simple pictograph Meaning: nothing. [无無. A dancer also pronounced wu. Borrowed for sound.]

幺+9 or how many? how much?; a few some = xiá be intimate with

Simple pictograph 其. A basket being held by two hands. Borrowed for sound. Meaning: his.

From door 户 and an ax to make a door 斤. Meaning: place.

From person squatting 尸 and upside down baby 古. Meaning: the place you were born dwelling.

Deletion remnant 厌(t厭). From 厂(augmentation stroke. Cave) and phonetic 猒 (from dog 犬 with meat 月肉 in his mouth 曰). Meaning dislike.

Simple pictograph 生. A sprout coming out of the ground. Meaning: birth.

Augmented pictograph 夫. Augmentation 一 and man 大. Meaning: husband or important man.

From mouth 口 (character created for sound) and phonetic 隹. Meaning: yes.

From sun or day 日 (sundial) and to go 疋. Original Meaning: time. Now Meaning: here and now.

Simple pictograph 以. Usually a pictograph of a mouth often making some kind of sound. Borrowed for sound. Meaning: by means of.Simple pictograph 以. g by means of.

Super cursive remnant 圣聖. From a man standing on the earth 土王𡈼 (ting) not 壬(ren) and remnant 又 (from speaking 口 and being listened to with the ear 耳). Meaning: sage. Note: remnant 又and 土.

Simple pictograph 人. A person in profile. Meaning: person.

Simple pictograph 自. A nose. Chinese point to their nose when they say I. Meaning: myself.

From mouth 口 (character created for sound) and phonetic 矢 borrowed for sound. Meaning: to know.

Simple pictograph 见見. From eye 目 and human 儿. Meaning: to see.

Cursive remnant 爱愛. From person 夬 (top part) that walks 夊 with a heart 心. Meaning: love.

From cowry 贝貝 and remnant phonetic 臾 (string of coweries). Meaning: expensive.

From hand 攵攴 and phonetic (also Meaning: ancient) 古. Original Meaning: ancient and reason.

Compound pictograph 去. From man 土大 leaving an enclosure 𠙴. Meaning: to go.

From road 彳 and phonetic 皮. Original Meaning: popular.

From ear 耳 and right hand 又. Meaning: to summon someone as to call them co come forward.

From foot 止 and person standing there 匕. Meaning: this.

 

Sources:

http://www.thetao.info/tao/big5.htm,

http://ctext.org/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=%E4%B9%8D

https://chinese.yabla.com/chinese-english-pinyin-dictionary.php?define=%E4%B9%8D

http://www.chineseetymology.org/CharacterEtymology.aspx?submitButton1=Etymology&characterInput=%E4%BD%9C  [and more].