© Hilmar Alquiros  道 德 經 Dào Dé Jīng Project: 2000-2020  All Rights Reserved Impressum 

46
001
045

 

sum:

2950
2994

第四十六章
dì sì shí liù zhāng

Peaceful Frugality

Friedliche Genügsamkeit

 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

    Global Dào     Buttons!

~ Textus Receptus:    1 2 3 4 5

W: Wáng Bì  王弼 (226–249) < +250
H:  Héshàng Gōng  河上公  > +100
F:
  Fù Yì  傅奕 (554−639) +574 / < -202

 

+ New Discoveries:   1 2 3 4 5

G:  Guōdiàn  郭店 ~ -300
M: 
Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 A < -
206
m: 
Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 B
< -179
B:  Běi Dà 北大  ~ -150, ~ -100

 

Raw texts s. below / Rohtexte s. unten!

© 2016 Hilmar Alquiros

 

+ Hán Fēizǐ  韓非子 (280-233) - W. K. Liao: 
 
  Ch. XXI. Illustrations of Lao Tzŭ's Teachings.*

 

46.a
001
018

 Farm Horses or War Horses

Ackergäule oder Kriegspferde?

 
No.
sum

Wáng Bì 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

Analogous
Sinngemäß

   

 

46 - Peaceful Frugality

 

 

 A world with Dào turns race horses back for fertilizing the fields; a world without Dào lets grow  up war horses in the outskirts.

 01-02

 

 

 No crime is bigger than to know desire; no calamity is bigger than not to know content-ment; no fault is greater than desire for profit.
 
So, knowing enough of enoughness is
con-stantly enough, indeed!

 03-07

 

 

© hilmar alquiros, 2017

 

 

46 - Friedliche Genügsamkeit

 

 

 Eine Welt mit Dào nimmt Rennpferde zurück zum Düngen, eine Welt ohne Dào züchtet Streitrosse vor der Stadt.

 01-02

 

 

 Kein Verbrechen ist größer als Begehrlichkeit zu kennen, kein Unheil ist größer als Zufriedenheit nicht zu kennen, kein Fehler ist größer als Gier nach Gewinn.
 Darum: weiß
man genug um Genügsamkeit, hat man wohl beständig genug!

 03-07

 

 

© hilmar alquiros, 2017

 

46.01.
001
009

天下
tiān xià

有道,
yǒu dào

卻走馬
què zǒu mǎ

以糞,
yǐ fèn,

天下 World {= "Heaven / under"} / Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}.

here:  with {which_has} /   / hier: mit {welche hat}; to get {possess}, there_are {subsist} / haben {besitzen}, gibt_es {existieren}.

Dào {Way} / Dào {Weg} [here = the "wise ruler" / hier = der "weise Herrscher"; s. 44.05. ].

to turn_[back] / (zurück-)_nehmen.

riding ~, race ~ / Reit ~, Renn ~.

~ horse(-s) / ~ -pferd(-e).

for / zum (für); by means of, to use, in order to / mittels,  gebrauchen, um zu, weil.

to manure {= to fertilize fields} / Düngen [der Felder].*

A world {= "Heaven / under"}
with {which_has} Dào:
turns_[back]
the race horses
for manuring {= fertilizing
the fields},

Eine Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}
mit {welche hat} Dào,
nimmt
_[zurück]
Rennpferde
zum Düngen [der Felder],

A world with Dào turns race horses back for manuring,

Eine Welt mit Dào nimmt Rennpferde zurück zum Düngen,

A world with Dào will change, for sure,
the
horse for races to manure,

Soll Dào alle Welt durchdringen,
nimmt man das
Rennpferd nur zum Düngen,

46.02.
010
018

天下
tiān xià

無道
dào

戎馬
róng mǎ


shēng

於郊。
jiāo

天下 World {= "Heaven / under"} / Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}.

without (no) {non-being, nothing_(-ness) [ / ohne (kein) {nicht-sein, Nichts}.

Dào {Way} / Dào {Weg}.

(chariot), war, troops / (Wagen-), Kriegs-, Militär-.

~ horse(-s) / ~ -pferd(-e).

to grow_up / züchten {heranwachsen}.

in / in.

the outskirts / die Vororte; or: suburbs; border marshes [= “sacred mound” outside the city] / oder: Außenbezirke; Grenzsümpfe [= „geweihter Grund“ außerhalb der Stadt].

a world {= "Heaven / under"}
without Dào:
war horses
grow_up

in
the outskirts.

eine Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}
ohne Dào
Kriegspferde
züchten
{wachsen_heran}
in den Vororten.

a world without Dào lets war horses grow up in the outskirts.

eine Welt ohne Dào züchtet Streitrosse vor der Stadt.

a world without Dào lets them grow
up for the war, in outskirts, though.

im Vorort, so das Dào schwieg,
da züchtet
Pferde man zum Krieg.

   

* also: to sow {to seed} / säen [Zhang Yi & Yi  Shu; Xu Zhu].
 

"The racing horses are used for manuring" / "Rennpferde werden zum Düngen verwendet" [Eduard Erkes, 1958 p. 201];

"Fast horses are used for their dung" / "Schnelle Pferde werden für ihren Dung genutzt" [Chen, 1989 p.165];

"Coursers will be stabled for the sake of their dung" / "Renner (Rennpferde) werden [im Stall] untergebracht um ihres Dunges willen" [Duyvendak, 1954 p. 105].

46.b
019
045

Begehren und Gier oder Befriedigung in Genügsamkeit

No.
sum

Wáng Bì 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

46.03.
019
024

(in text family)*


zuì

莫大
mò dà

可欲,
,

crime, evil {guilt, fault} / Verbrechen, Übel {Fehler, Schuld}.

none / kein(-es).

big (bigger) / groß (größer).

than / als.

to know (aware_of) / kennen  (bewußt).

desire (greediness) / Begehrlichkeit (Begehren).

罪莫大於可欲*

Among crimes {evils},
none
is bigger than
to know desire,

Als Verbrechen, Übel {Schuld, Fehler}
ist
keines größer als
zu kennen das Begehrlichkeit,

No evil is bigger than to know desire;

Kein Übel ist größer als Begehrlichkeit zu kennen,

Among all crimes there none is higher
than knowing
well desire's fire,

Kein Unglück größer noch zu nennen,
als
die Begehrlichkeit zu kennen,

46.04.
025
031


huò

莫大
mò dà

不知足,
bù zhī ,

calamity {disasters, misfortunes} / Unheil {Verhängnis, Unglück}.

none / kein(-es).

big (bigger) / groß (größer).

than / als.

not / nicht {un-}.

to know (aware_of) / kennen  (bewußt).

enough (contentment, frugality) / genug {Zufriedenheit,  (Genügsamkeit). 46.04.+46.05. sometimes exchanged! / manchmal vertauscht!

among calamities {disasters, misfortunes},
none
is bigger than
not
to know contentment,

an Unheil {Verhängnis, Unglück}
keines größer
als
nicht
zu kennen Zufriedenheit,

no calamity is bigger than not to know contentment;

kein Unheil ist größer als Zufriedenheit nicht zu kennen,

among calamities none bigger
than not to know contentment's vigor,

kein Unheil größer auch umrissen,
als
um Zufriedenheit nicht wissen;

46.05.
032
037


jiù

莫大
mò dà

欲得:
yù dé:

disaster {fault, vice} / Verhängnis {Fehler, Laster}.

none / kein(-es).

big (bigger) / groß (größer). 莫大 sometimes different / manchmal unterschiedlich [Wagner p. k275].

than / als.

desire / Verlangen {Gier; Streben}.

gain / Gewinn.

among disasters {faults, vices},
none
is greater than
the desire for gain:

an Verhängnis {Fehlern, Lastern}
keines größer
als
Verlangen
{Gier; Streben} nach Gewinn:

no disaster is greater than desire for profit.

kein Verhängnis ist größer als Gier nach Gewinn.

no fault is greater in the main
than any greediness for gain.

kein Fehler größer so im Sinn
als
das Verlangen nach
Gewinn.

46.06.
038
042


zhī

之足,
zhī ,

hence / daher.

to know (aware_of) / kennen  (bewußt).

enough (contentment, frugality) / genug {Zufriedenheit,  (Genügsamkeit).

here: their, its / hier: deren, ihre; or: /'s,  of [Genitive] / oder: des, von (sächsischer) Genitiv].

enough(-ness) {contentment, frugality} / Genügen {Zufriedenheit,  Genügsamkeit}. **

Hence: knowing enough
of enoughness
[= enoughness/' [its] enough],

Daher: versteht [man] genug
vom Genügen
{Genügsamkeit},
[= des Genügen/s [dessen] genug],

Hence: knowing enough of enoughness

Daher: weiß man genug um Genügsamkeit,

Enough enoughness so to know,

Drum: kennt genug Genügsamkeit,

46.07.
043
045

常足矣。
cháng yǐ。

constantly {always, eternally} / beständig {allzeit, ewig_(-lich)}.

enough (contentment, frugality) / genug {Zufriedenheit,  (Genügsamkeit).

indeed! = Classical final particle which stresses the subjective certainty / wohl! = Klassische Schlusspartikel, die subjektive Gewissheit betont.

is constantly {always, eternally} enough, [indeed]!

beständig {allzeit, ewig_(-lich)} genügt das [wohl]!

is constantly enough, indeed!

hat man wohl beständig genug!

is constantly enough, although!

das wohl genügt für alle Zeit!

 

 

*罪莫大於可欲, not in STAR, 2001 or Sabbadini, 2013 / 王弼 Wáng Bì: but 馬王堆 Mǎwángduī A+B! cf. Henricks, 1989, p. 114.  In >50 versions (Rump, 1979, p. 136), parallel structure, typically for 老子!
C
f.
Wagner, 2003, p. 275, 46.3 (footnote g): "Lu adds that a Héshàng Gōng  河上公 text had this passage. All other {51} members of Wang Bi's textual family have the passage. Shima Kunio accepts it."
Cf.
郭店 Guōdiàn! (tables in commentary); Shen, 2004 p. 176; Henricks, 1989 p. 114; Rump, 1979 p. 136.

So, we include  in chapter & consecutive numbering! / Wir übernehmen daher in Kapitel & fortlaufender Zählung!

** (46.01.) (When he [a Sage Ruler]) "...knows how to be satisfied [with what he has]" and "knows how to halt [the craving for ever greater fame]," and there is no striving for [things] outside but each and everyone just takes care of his internal maatters. That is why [the text says] "riding horses would be kept back for" managing the dung on the fields!  [Wáng Bì  王弼 / Wagner, 2003 p. 275].

(46.03.) "That is why the satisfaction of [a ruler] who knows how to be satisfied [provides] eternal satisfaction." / "Daher [liefert] die Zufriedenstellung desjenigen [Herrschers], der weiß, wie man zufriedenstellt wird, ewige Zufriedenstellung."  [王弼 Wáng Bì / Wagner 2003, p. 275.]

POETIC!

poetic!

     

G = Guōdiàn  郭店 (Original parts A, B, C)

g  guōdiàn  郭店 (partly modernized characters: http://julon.8u8.com )

M = Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 version 1

m = mǎwángduī  馬王堆 version 2

W = Wáng Bì  王弼 (= Traditional Version)

H = Holistic Version

 

G

 

??

??

 

 

g

 

 

 

M

 

 

m

 

 

 

 

(W)

 

 

3.

H

,

 

 

G

??

??

 

??

??

 

 

g

 

 

 

M

 

 

m

 

 

W

 

4.

H

 

 

G

??

??

 

 

g

 

 

M

 

 

 

m

 

 

 

W

 

 

5.

H

 cf.  www.tao-te-king.org/mutual2.htm !

           

46
001
045

 

sum:

2950
2994

第四十六章
dì sì shí liù zhāng

Peaceful Frugality

Friedliche Genügsamkeit

 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

 

北大 Běi Dà 46

B: 天下有道卻走馬以糞
     天下無道戎馬
     罪莫大於可欲
     禍莫大於不
     咎莫 ? 於欲得    

     足之       足矣

 

馬王堆 Mǎwángduī  46

M:天下有道     □ 走馬以糞   
     天下無道    戎馬生於郊
         罪莫大於可欲   
     禍莫大於不知足
    
     咎莫於欲得       

      □  □  □ □         □         恆足矣   

 

馬王堆 Mǎwángduī  46

m:  □  □ □      卻走馬  
 
             無道    戎馬生於郊   
         罪莫大     可欲   
    
□  □ □  □ □  □     
      □  □ □  □  □  □          

      □  □  □ □  □               足矣    

 

郭店 Guōdiàn A3 = 46, 3–7

G:                                            
 
                                                       
 
    罪莫厚乎甚
     莫大
     咎莫慘欲得    5th line!

                足之此恆足矣                    [cf. < Correa's] [智 = 知;  智 = 知]

 

 

王弼 Wáng Bì 46

W: 天下有道卻走馬以糞
      天下無道戎馬生於郊
    
       罪莫大於可欲      *
    
禍 莫大於不知足
     咎莫大於欲得    

     故 知足之            常足矣

 

河上公 Héshàng Gōng 46

H: 天下有道卻走馬以糞
     天下無道戎馬生於郊
         罪莫大於可欲     
     禍莫大於不知足
     咎莫大於欲得    

     故知足之         常足矣

 

傅奕 Fù Yì 46

F: 天下有道卻走馬以
     天下無道戎馬生於郊
         罪莫大於可欲
     禍莫大於不知足,  
     咎莫於欲得    

     故知足之       足矣

 

 

 

 

Raw texts s. below / Rohtexte s. unten!

© 2016 Hilmar Alquiros

 

           
 

Raw texts / Rohtexte:

+ New Discoveries:   1 2 3 4 5

G:  Guōdiàn  郭店 ~ -300
M: 
Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 A < -
206
m: 
Mǎwángduī  馬王堆 B
< -179
B:  Běi Dà 北大  ~ -150, ~ -100

 

~ Textus Receptus:    1 2 3 4 5

W: Wáng Bì  王弼 (226–249) < +250
H:  Héshàng Gōng  河上公  > +100
F:
  Fù Yì  傅奕 (554−639) +574 / < -202

 

+ Hán Fēizǐ  韓非子 (280-233) - W. K. Liao: * in: The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzŭ with Collected Commentaries, April 1939. [Link].

 Ch. XX. Commentaries on Lao Tzŭ's Teachings:  = DDJ 38, 58, 59, 60, 46, 14, 01, 50, 67, 53, 54
 
Ch. XXI. Illustrations of Lao Tzŭ's Teachings.* = DDJ 46, 54, 26, 36, 63, 64, 52, 71, 64, 47, 41, 33, 27

 

M:‧天下有道□走馬以糞天下無道戎馬生於郊‧罪莫大於可欲禍莫大於不知足咎莫憯於欲得□□□□□恆足矣

m:□□□道卻走馬□糞無道戎馬生於郊罪莫大可欲禍□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□足矣

G(A3) = 46, 3–7:罪莫厚乎甚欲,咎莫慘乎欲得,化莫大乎不智足。智足之為足,此恆足矣。

B:天下有道,卻走馬以糞;天下無道,戎馬產於鄗。故罪莫大於可欲,禍莫大於不智足,咎莫??於欲得。故智足之足,恒足矣。

鄗(郊), 智(知), 莫??(惨), 智(知).

W:天下有道,卻走馬以糞。天下無道,戎馬生於郊。[罪莫大於可欲]禍莫大於不知足。咎莫大於欲得。故知足之足常足矣。

H:天下有道,天下無道,戎馬生於郊。罪莫大於可欲。禍莫大於不知足,咎莫大於欲得。故知足之足,常足〔矣〕。

F:天下有道,卻走馬以播。天下無道,戎馬生於郊。罪莫大於可欲,禍莫大於不知足, 咎莫憯於欲得。故知足之足,常足矣。

 

 

 

 

Mǎwángduī: ch. 1-37 after 38-81; 24 before 22 + 23, 41 before 41, 80+81 after 66.

Mǎwángduī: Kap. 1-37 nach 38-81; 24 vor 22 + 23, 41 vor 41, 80+81 nach 66.

 

46

Etymological Notes:

 

Augmented pictograph 天. Augmentation 一 (head) to person 大. Meaning: sky.

Simple pictograph 下(丅𠄟). A mark below the line. Meaning: down.

Compound pictograph 有. From a hand *又 holding some meat 月肉. Meaning: to have.

Composition:Bottom-left: 辶 chuò walk; walking; KangXi radical 162 ; top-right: 首shǒu head; first; leader chief; a poem. path road street; method way. The motion of thoughts which are diverse; traveling though life with one’s attention on the duality of unity with nature the head in motion.

From person卩 (kneeling person) and phonetic 去谷 original Meaning: to retreate (after kneeling). Borrowed for sound. Meaning: but.

Simple pictograph 走. A person 土大 with a foot 止. Meaning: to walk.

Simple pictograph 马馬. A horse.

Simple pictograph 以. Usually a pictograph of a mouth often making some kind of sound. Borrowed for sound. Meaning: by means of.Simple pictograph 以. g by means of.

Deletion remnant 粪(t糞). From sort 米釆 and hands 共 separating rocks (shit) from the rice in a winnowing pan 田箕. Meaning: manure.

無 wú mó  火+ 8 strokes  negative no not; lack have no Simple pictograph Meaning: nothing. [无無. A dancer also pronounced wu. Borrowed for sound.]

Simple pictograph 戎. A weapon 戈 and armor 甲. Meaning: arms.

Simple pictograph 生. A sprout coming out of the ground. Meaning: birth.

Simple pictograph 於. Unclear origin. Meaning: in.

郊 ?

From city 阝邑 and phonetic 交. Meaning: suburbs.

From grass 艹艸 and sun or mouth 日口 and more grass 大艸. Originally Meaning: “not” or “dusk” probably from the sun lost in the grass.

Simple pictograph 大. Front prifile of a man 大. Meaning: large.

Simple pictograph. Unclear origin. Possibly a root which us pulled up and is thus NOT there. Meaning: “no”.

From mouth 口 (character created for sound) and phonetic 矢 borrowed for sound. Meaning: to know.

Simple pictograph 足. From remanat 口 (top of leg) and foot 止. Meaning: foot.

jiù Composition:Top: chù place locale; department bottom: . kǒu mouth; open end; entrance gate = fault defect; error mistake.

Simple pictograph 大. Front prifile of a man 大. Meaning: large.

Composition:Left: valley gorge ravine right: owe lack be deficient; KangXi radical number 76 . desire want long for; intend

From road 彳 and phonetic (Meaning: aquire) 㝵. Meaning: to aquire as at the market along the road.

From hand 攵攴 and phonetic (also Meaning: ancient) 古. Original Meaning: ancient and reason.

Simple pictograph 之㞢𡳿. Augmentation of foot 止 going forward from 一. Originally indicating to go forward.

From cloth 巾 (making cloth was the most common activity of the ancient world) and phonetic 尚. Meaning: common.

From arrow 矢 (which hits its mark and stops) and phonetic 厶. Meaning: a final sound indicicating end of sentence.

 

Sources:

http://www.thetao.info/tao/big5.htm,

http://ctext.org/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=%E4%B9%8D

https://chinese.yabla.com/chinese-english-pinyin-dictionary.php?define=%E4%B9%8D

http://www.chineseetymology.org/CharacterEtymology.aspx?submitButton1=Etymology&characterInput=%E4%BD%9C  [and more].