Hilmar Alquiros  道 德 經 Do D Jīng Project: 2000-2020  All Rights Reserved Impressum 

41
001
095

 

sum:

2758

第四十一章
d s sh yī zhāng

Unscheinbares Do

Unimposing Do

 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

    Global Do     Buttons!

~ Textus Receptus:    1 2 3 4 5

W: Wng B  王弼 (226249) < +250
H:  Hshng Gōng  河上公  > +100
F:
  F Y  傅奕 (554−639) +574 / < -202

 

+ New Discoveries:   1 2 3 4 5

G:  Guōdin  郭店 ~ -300
M: 
Mǎwngduī  馬王堆 A < -
206
m: 
Mǎwngduī  馬王堆 B
< -179
B:  Běi D 北大  ~ -150, ~ -100

 

Raw texts s. below / Rohtexte s. unten!

2016 Hilmar Alquiros

 

41.a
001
030

Judicious, Mediocre and Ignorant People

Verstndige, mittelmige und unverstndige Leute

+ Hn Fēizǐ  韓非子 (280-233) - W. K. Liao: 
    Ch.
XXI. Illustrations of Lao Tzŭ's Teachings.*

+ Yē sū

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

Analogous
Sinngem

   

 

41 - Unimposing Do

 [ Different levels of understanding the Do show all the more its grandeur.
  In twelve established sayings, still mostly rhymed,
Lǎozĭ poetically gives us a glimpse behind the scenes of the surface (ch. 01):

 [ treating the paradoxes of Do (lines 06-08), of D and its purity and truth (09-13), and of greatest forms and gifts (14-17).

 [ Nothing provides and completes as Do (18-19).

 

 01-04:

 Superior scholars hear of Do,
 endeavor
and practise it.

 Mediocre scholars hear of Do:
 
unsure,
if it exists, if not?

 Inferior scholars hear of Do,
 they greatly laugh
at
it.

 

 Not laughed at,  
 
it were insufficient to consider Do!

 01-04 sh: 一 one of something pronounced like 十; a (honorable) gentleman, (in antiquity): a scholar. Superior, mediocre, and inferior scholars, coming into contact with Do, in ancient times mostly by hearing (!), react differently, depending of their capacity, open-mindedness, and spiritual understanding:
 
[ superior ones make an effort and are deeply moved, they walk the Way and have the will and inner strength to practice it powerfully (ch. 33);
 
[ mediocre ones encounter Do halfheartedly: unsecure, it it exists or not, they seem to be touched but not penetrated by it;
 
[ inferior ones, open for sensuous, but not spiritual experience, laugh at it, because they find the idea of something invisible and (in Kant's use) supersensible  ridiculous
 but just that is a proof of Do's transcendence: "were they not ridiculing it, it would not qualify to be taken for the Way" [
*
王弼 Wng B's / Wag-ner].

 

 05-08:

 Therefore, there is the established saying:

 'Enlightening Do like dark,

 

 advancing Do like retreating,

 smoothing Do like bumpy.'

 05-08 The next three lines are clearly marked as an ancient saying, rhyming paradoxes [except of  退 now tu], as the next five lines do, as well.
 Do, being
enlightening, advancing, smoothing, seems, for the unexperienced who follow the outer appearance only, dark, retreating, bumpy:
 
[ enlightening: The Do of the Sage "enlightens but does not investigate (ch. 58) [dark and hidden actions of the populace]" [*].
 
[ advancing: The Do of the Sage "puts his own person in the background (ch. 07) and [achieves in this way] that his own person comes to be to the for; disregards his own person and [achieves in this way] that his own person will last" [*].
 
[ smoothing: The Do of the Sage "...bringing about Great Eveness is to go by the nature of entities (ch. 27) and not to hold onto equalizing by way of 'cutting off from' the entities" [*]. Great carvings arise without shavings. (ch. 28): "the Great Regulator ... regulates without any cutting-off" (Oppression) [*].

 

 09-13:

 Highest Inner Power seems common,

 great purity seems stained;

 

 comprehensive Inner Power seems insufficient,

 steadfast Inner Power seems like elusive,

 pure truth seems changeable.

 09-13 Five more Paradoxes, No. 4 - 8 (of 12): one of the Doist techniques to speak the unspeakable.
 Highest, comprehensive, and steadfast D
, Do in (real) life as Inner Power, seems common, insufficient, and elusive.
 
Great purity (integrity) and 質真 pure truth (real authenticity) seem like stained, and changeable (dirtied).

 

 14-17:

 A greatest square seems without corners,

 greatest talents mature still late,

 greatest music lies in silent sound,

 greatest form remains without contour.

 14-17 The last four paradoxes broaden the variety by two 'geometric' examples (square and form in general), framing two 'cultural' ones (music and talent in general):
 the Old Master's tudes to get an expansion of consciousness, to open the mind for the unlimited, reaching poetically for the
image of transcendence:
 
[ greatest squares need no corners or outlines;  the Sage "makes square but does not trim" (ch. 58) [*].
 
[ greatest gifts (instruments, devices) ripen late, often until "the nick of time" [*],
 
[ greatest sounds are inaudible (ch. 14), but spri-tual,
 [ greatest form (shape) does not need any con-tour, when finally everything is within, nothing beyond anymore.

 

 18-19:

 Only Do, so hidden and nameless,

 does well provide and does complete.

 18-19 All in all, those ancient, established rhymed sayings intend to say between the lines: the hidden and nameless Do only is well-providing, moreover completing all creatures.

 

hilmar alquiros, 2017

 

 

41 - Unscheinbares Do

 [ Unterschiedliche Stufen, Do zu verstehen, zeigen umso mehr seine Erhabenheit.
 
[ In zwlf altbewhrten Sprchen, meist noch immer gereimt, schenkt uns Lǎozĭ poetisch einen Blick hinter die Kulissen der Oberflchlichkeit (Kap. 01):
 
[ die Paradoxien des Do handelt er dabei ab (Zeilen 06-08), des D und dessen Reinheit und Wahrheit (09-13), und solche der grten Formen und Gaben (14-17).
 
[ Nichts versorgt und vollendet wie das Do (18-19).

 

 01-04:

 Hher Gebildete hren vom Do,
 bemhen sich und praktizieren es.

 Mittelmig Gebildete hren vom Do:
 
unsicher, ob es existiert, ob nicht?

 Wenig Gebildete hren vom Do:
 gro verlachen
sie es. 

 

 Nicht derart verlacht,
 
wre es nicht genug, es als Do zu erachten!

 01-04   sh: Eines, ausgepgt wie zehn; ein (ehrenwerter) Herr,  a (honorable) gentleman, (im Altertum): ein Gelehrter.
 
Kommen berragende, mittlere, und nachrangige Gelehrte  mit dem Do in Berhrung, in alten Zeiten meist hrend (!), reagieren sie unter-schiedlich, abhngig von deren Fassungsvermgen, ihrer Aufgeschlossenheit und ihrem geistigen Verstndnis:
 
[ berragende bemhen sich und sind tief bewegt, sie wandeln auf dem Weg und verfgen ber Willen und innere Strke, ihn kraftvoll zu praktizieren (Kap. 33);
 
[ mittlere begegnen dem Do halbherzig: unsi-cher, ob es existiert oder nicht, scheinen sie berhrt, doch nicht von ihm durchdrungen.
 
[ nachrangige, offen fr sinnliche, aber nicht fr spirituelle Erfahrungen, lachen darber, da sie die Idee von etwas Unsichtbaren und bersinnlichen (im  Sinne Kants) lcherlich finden und darber lachen
 aber genau das ist der Beweis fr die Transzendenz des Do: "wrden sie sich nicht darber lustig machen, es htte keine Berechtigung, fr den Weg gehalten zu werden" [
王弼 Wng B's / Wagner].

 

 05-08:

 Darum gibt es die bewhrte Redewendung:

 'Erleuchtetes Do wie dunkel,

 

 voranschreitendes Do wie zurckweichend,

 glttendes Do wie holprig.'

 05-08 Die nchsten drei Zeilen sind klar als althergebrachte Redensart vermerkt, reimende Para-doxien [auer 退 nun tu], wie es auch die nchsten fnf Zeilen tun.
 Do, das erleuchtend, fortschreitend, glttend ist, scheint, fr den Unerfahrenen, der nur der ueren Erscheinung folgt, dunkel, sich zurckziehend, holprig:
 
[ erleuchtend: Das Do des Weisen "erleuchtet, doch forscht es nicht nach (Kap. 58) [dunklen und verbor-genen Handlungen der Bevlkerung]" [*].
 
[ fortschreitend: Das Do des Weisen "stellt seine eigene Person in den Hintergrund (Kap. 07) und [erreicht auf diesem Wege] dass seine eigene Person nach vorn gelangt; missachtet seine eigene Person und [erreicht auf diesem Wege] dass seine eigene Person fortdauern wird" [*].
 
[ glttend: Das Do des Weisen "...bewerkstelligt, dass die Groe Ebenheit nach der Natur der Wesen (Kap. 27) erfolgen solle und nicht an Angleichung festhlt mittels 'Abschneiden von den Wesen' [*]. Groes Schnitzwerk entsteht ohne Spne" (Kap. 28): "der Groe Regulierer ... reguliert ohne Ab-schneiden" (Unterdrckung) [*].

 

 09-13:

 Hchste Innere Kraft scheint gewhnlich,

 grte Reinheit wie befleckt;

 

 umfassende Innere Kraft unzureichend,

 standhafte Innere Kraft wie scheint trgerisch,

 reine Wahrheit wankelmtig.

 09-13 Fnf weitere Paradoxien, Nr. 4 - 8 (von 12): eine der Doistischen Techniken das Unaussprech-liche zu sagen, ber das Unsagbare zu sprechen.
 
Hchstes, umfassenstes, and unerschtterlichstes D
, als Do in des (wirklichen) Lebens Innere Kraft, scheint gewhnlich, ungengend und ent-schwindend, common, insufficient, and trgerisch-ausweichend.
 
Groe Reinheit (Integritt) und 質真 reine (wirkliche) Wahrheit (Authentizitt) scheinen wie befleckt, and changeable (dirtied).

 

 14-17:

 Das grte Viereck scheint ohne Ecken,

 grtes Talent reift noch spt,

 grte Musik liegt in leisestem Klang,

 grte Form scheint ohne Umriss.

 14-17 Die letzten vier Paradoxien erweitern die Vielfalt durch zwei 'geometrische' (Quadrat, Form im allgemeinen), welche zwei 'kulturelle' um-rahmen (Musik, Befhigung im allgmeinen):
 Etden des Alten Meisters zur Bewusstseins-erweiterung, den Geist zu ffnen fr das Unbegrenzte, der poetische Griff nach dem Bildnis der Transzendenz:

 
[ grte Quadrate bentigen keine Ecknen oder Umrisse; der Weise "begleicht, doch beschneidet nicht"  (Kap. 58) [*].
 [ grte Gaben (Instrumente, Gerte) reifen spt, oftmals noch zuallerletzt [*],
 
[ grte Klnge are inaudible (Kap. 14), but spritual,
 
[ grte Form (Gestalt) bentigt keinen Umriss, wenn sich schlielich alles innerhalb, nichts mehr auerhalb befindet.

 

 18-19:

 Nur das Do, so namenlos verborgen,

 wird uns wahrhaft vollenden und umsorgen.

 18-19 Alles in allem, mchten jene aus alter Zeit gebruchlichen Reimsprche zwischen den Zeilen besagen: das verborgene und namenlose Do allein vermag jedwedes Geschpf gut zu versorgen, mehr noch: zu vollenden.

 

hilmar alquiros, 2017

 

 

    Global Do     Buttons!

41.01.
001
008

上士
shng sh

聞道
wn do

勤而
qn r

行之;
xng zhī;

high(-est) {superior} / hoch (hchst) {berlegen}.

scholar {warrior} or: "henchman", follower / Gelehrter, Gebildeter {Krieger} oder: Gefolgsmann.

to hear / hren.

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

to make_an_effort / sich bemhen {befleiigen}.

and_also / und_auch.

to practice [to walk, to do, to perform] / praktizieren [ge-hen, tun, leisten].

here: it / hier: es. [Genitive] / [(schsischer) Genitiv].

Superior scholars
hear
of Do,
make_an_effort and_also
practice it;

Hochgebildete
hren
vom Do,
bemhen {befleiigen} sich und_(auch)
praktizieren es;

Superior scholars hear of Do, endeavor and practise it;

Hher Gebildete hren vom Do, bemhen sich und praktizieren es,

Superior scholars hear of Do,
endeavor practising
it now;

Erfhrt als hoch gebildet man
vom Do, bt
man's eifrig dann;

41.02.
009
016

中士
zhōng sh

聞道
wn do

若存
 ru cn

若亡;
 ru wng;

mediocre {middle} / (mittel-)_mig.

scholar {warrior} here: "henchman", follower / Gelehrter, Gebildeter {Krieger} hier: Gefolgsmann.*

to hear / hren.

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

if {sometimes} / ob {mal}.

to exist {to keep} / existieren.

 if {sometimes} / ob {mal}.

not_[existent] {lose } / nicht_[-existent] {verlieren}.

mediocre scholars
hear
of Do:
1) if it exists,
if
not_[existent]?
2) sometimes keep it,
sometimes lose it;

mittelmig Gebildete
hren
vom Do:
1) ob es existiert,
ob nicht_[-existent]?
2) mal bewahren,
mal verlieren
sie es;

mediocre scholars hear of Do: if it exists, if not?;

mittelmig Gebildete hren vom Do: ob es existiert, ob nicht?,

hear medium scholars Do, then twisting:
"...
it is or is it not existing?"

der Durchschnitt hrt vom Do noch,
und schwankt: "Das gibt's nicht
oder doch?"

41.03.
017
023

下士
xi sh

聞道
wn do

大笑之
d xio zhī

low(-er) {inferior} / gering(-er) {unterlegen}.

scholar {warrior} here: "henchman", follower / Gelehrter, Gebildeter {Krieger} hier: Gefolgsmann.

to hear / hren.

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

great_(ly) / gro.

to laugh at / verlachen {verspotten}.

here: it / hier: es; [Genitive] / [(schsischer) Genitiv].**

inferior scholars
hear
of Do
greatly laugh at it;

wenig Gebildete
hren
vom Do:
gro verlachen {
verspotten}
sie es;

inferior scholars hear of Do, they greatly laugh at it;

wenig Gebildete hren vom Do: gro verlachen sie es;

inferior scholars hear of that
yet only laughing greatly at 

hrt Do nied're Bildung blo,
verlachen werden sie es gro

41.04.
024
030

不笑
b xio

不足
b z

以為道!
yǐ wi do!

not / nicht {un-}.

 to laugh at / verlachen {verspotten}.

not / nicht {un-}.***

sufficient {enough} / gengend {genug}.

(in order) to /  (um) zu.

to consider_as {to act_as} / gelten {wirken} als.

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

not laughed at [like that],
it were in/sufficient {not enough}
to consider (as)
{act_as} Do!

nicht verlacht [derart],
wre es un/gengend {nicht ausreichend},
zu
gelten {wirken} als Do [= es zu erachten als Do]!

not laughed at,  it were not enough to consider Do!

nicht derart verlacht, wre es nicht genug, es als Do zu erachten!

not being laughed at, anyhow,
it's not enough to act as Do!

nicht so verlacht: es knnte nun
nicht
mehr genug als Do tun!

 

 

* A mediocre one is distracted from by success in life (wealth, honor) / Ein Mittelmiger wird durch Lebenserfolge (Reichtum, Ehre) von abgelenkt [Hshng Gōng  河上公 commentary, cf. Erkes, 1958 p. 78/ 194].

** 郭店 Guōdin + 馬王堆 Mǎwngduī B! (not in the traditional versions and Wng B / nicht in den traditionellen Versionen und Wng B); 大笑之 lit.: greatly (heartily) laugh at it / Gro verlache es [= LOL!].

*** 不足以 lit.: not could (it) thus / nicht knnte (es) so [dabei]; 郭店 Guōdin: + ; 馬王堆 Mǎwngduī B: + if they wouldn't laugh greatly (much) at it / wrden sie es nicht gro verlachen.

 

41.b
031
047

Enlightened, Progressing and Flattened Do

Erleuchtetes, voranschreitendes und geebnetes Do

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

41.05.
031
035


g

建言
jin yn

有之:
yǒu zhī:

hence / daher.

established / bewhrt [= althergebracht].

saying {proverb} / Redewendung {das ... Sprichwort}.

建言: a book title? / ein Buchtitel?! [Henricks, 2000 p. 99].

here: there is, there_are {subsist} / gibt_es {existieren}.

that {it; something} / dies {es; etwas};  [Genitive] / [(sch-sischer) Genitiv].

言有之 or: words there are", sayings as follows: / oder: Worte gibt es, Redewendungen, Sprichworte wie:.

Hence,
the
established saying {proverb}
there_is that:

Daher,
die
bewhrte [= althergebrachte]
Redewendung {das ... Sprichwort}
gibt es:

Hence, there is the established saying:

Darum gibt es die bewhrte Redewendung:

Established sayings thus assure:

Da schon das alte Sprichwort meint:

41.06.
036
039

明道
mng do

若昧,
ru mi,

enlightened, -ing / erleuchtet, -end

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

to seem_like / erscheinen_wie.

dark / dunkel {verdunkelt}.

明[道若]昧 or: bright, illuminated (Do, Way seems) dark, obscure, dim, dull / oder: hell, erhellt (Do, Weg scheint) dunkel, verdunkelt, dster.

"Enlightening Do
[seems]_like dark,

"Erleuchtendes Do
[erscheint]_wie verdunkelt,

"Enlightening Do like dark,

"Erleuchtendes Do wie dunkel,

enlightening is Do obscure,

dass Dos Licht wie dunkel scheint,

41.07.
040
043

進道
jn do

退,
ru tu,

advancing / fortschreitend.

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

to seem_like / erscheinen_wie.

退 retreating / rcklufig.

類* here: brought back; type, category; like, similar / hier: zurckgebraucht; Typ, Kategorie, wie, hnlich.

進[道若]退 or: [going] forward, advancing (Do, Way seems); backward, retreating / oder: fortschrittliches, voranschreitendes (Do, Weg scheint); rckschrittig, zu-rckgehend.

advancing Do
[seems]_like retreating,

fortschreitendes Do
[erscheint]_wie rcklufig,

advancing Do like retreating,

voranschreitendes Do wie zurckweichend,

advancing Do retreating now:*

voran scheint es zurckzugehen,

41.08.
044
047

夷道
y do

若纇
ru li

smoothing; even {= plane]  / glttend; eben [= gleich hoch}.

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

to seem_like / erscheinen_wie.

uneven [= bumpy] / uneben {= holprig].

夷[道若]纇 or: even, straight, plane, smooth ("Do-like", "Way-like") / oder: eben, geradewegs, einfach, glatt ("Do-artig", "Weg-artig").

smoothing [evening] Do
[seems]_like bumpy." [= uneven].

glttendes [ein-]ebnendes Do
[erscheint]_wie
holprig." {= uneben].

smoothing Do like bumpy."

glttendes Do wie holprig."

like bumpy seems the smoothing Do.

scheint glttend holprig anzusehen.

 

 41.02. + 41.06. - 41.08.:

X 道 若 Y: 1) X = 道's adjunct (modifier) / Attribut [Wing-tsit Chan, D. C. Lau, J. Lin, Gia-Fu Feng & J. English, R. Wilhelm, H. Knospe & O. Brndli, J. Ulenbrook] ...

or: 2) X = verb & = (grammatical) object / Objekt [V. v. Strau, G. Debon, E. Schwarz] cf. Kalinke (2), 2000 p. 49.

 

retreating Do seems, when advancing,

and smoothing like a bumpy dancing.

41.c
048
068

Inner Power, Purity and Genuineness

Innere Kraft, Reinheit und Echtheit

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

41.09.
048
051

上德
shng d

若俗*,
 ru s,

high(-est) {superior} / hoch (hchst) {berlegen}.

Inner_Power / Innere_Kraft.

to seem_like / erscheinen_wie.

common, popular  = correction: the very similar (valley) seems to be a mistake by a copyist(!), cf. in Guō-din + Mǎwngduī B!

gewhnlich, populr = Korrektur: das sehr hnliche (Tal) scheint ein Fehler eines Kopisten zu sein (!), vergl.   in Guōdin + Mǎwngduī B!

Highest Inner_Power
[seems]_like
common* {not: valley*},

Hchste Innere_Kraft
[erscheint]_wie gewhnlich {
nicht: Tal*},

Highest Inner Power like common,

Hchste Innere Kraft wie gewhnlich,

High Inner Power: seems quite plain,

Gewhnlich scheint die hchste Kraft,

41.10.
052
055

大白
d bi

若辱,
ru ,

great_(-est) / gro (grte).

purity {integrity} / Reinheit {Ehrenhaftigkeit}; lit.: white (whiteness) / wei (Weiheit).

to seem_like / erscheinen_wie.

stained {disgrace, dishonor} / befleckt {Schmach, Ehrlosigkeit}; *

greatest purity {integrity}
[seems]_like stained {disgrace},

grte Reinheit {Ehrenhaftigkeit}
[erscheint]_wie befleckt {Schmach},

great purity like stained,

grte Reinheit wie befleckt,

great purity seems full of stain,

scheint groe Reinheit fleckenhaft,

41.11.
056
060

廣德
guǎng d

若不足,
ru b z,

encompassing, comprehensive / umfassend.

Inner_Power / Innere_Kraft.

to seem_like / erscheinen_wie.

not / nicht {un-}.

sufficient {enough} / gengend {genug}.

不足 in/adequate, de/ficient / oder: un/gengend, un/zu-lnglich.

encompassing Inner_Power
[seems]_like in/sufficient,

umfassende Innere_Kraft
[erscheint]_wie un/zureichend,

comprehensive Inner Power like insufficient,

umfassende Innere Kraft wie unzureichend,

vast Power not enough to reign,

scheint Kraft umfassend wie erschlafft,

41.12.
061
064

建德
jin d

若偷,
ru tōu,

steadfast / standhaft; or: (firmly) established, steadfast / oder: (fest) gegrndet, stabil.

Inner_Power / Innere_Kraft.

to seem_like / erscheinen_wie.

unsteady {elusive} / unbestndig {trgerisch}; or: flimsy (virtue); discreet, concealed; surreptitious / oder: schwach(-e) (Tugend); verschwiegen, verborgen; erschlichen.

41.10.+41.12. 大白若辱 / 建德若偷**

steadfast Inner_Power
[seems]_like unsteady {elusive},

standhaft Innere_Kraft
[erscheint]_wie unbestndig {trgerisch},

steadfast Inner Power like elusive,

standhafte Innere Kraft wie trgerisch,

firm Inner Power seems to feign,

solide Kraft wie unbestndig,

41.13.
065
068


zh zhēn

若渝。
ru

nature, quality; true; substantial, real; genuine;  / Natur, Qualitt; wahr; substantiell (gehaltvoll), wirklich; ur-sprnglich.

true (truth) {essence}; real,  pure, genuine / wahr (Wahrheit) {Essenz}; wirklich, (authentisch); rein, echt.

to seem_like / erscheinen_wie.

double minded (fickle), changeable;  or: "dirtied", unstable, flowing / wankelmtig, wechselhaft; oder: "be-schmutzt" instabil, flieend.***

pure {real} truth {authenticity; substance}
[seems]_like double minded, changeable.

reine {wirkliche} Wahrheit {Authentizitt, Substanz}
[erscheint]_wie
wankelmtig, wechselhaft.

and pure truth like double minded.

und reine Wahrheit wie  wankelmtig.

pure truth like changeable again.

und reine Wahrheit wechselwendig.

 

 

*orbesmirched; [reputation] tarnished; to insult / oder: besu-delt; [Ruf] angeschlagen; beleidigen..

**41.10.+41.12.大白若辱/建德若偷  
better exchanged according to the content /
besser vertauscht gem Inhalt
(Zhang Yi & Yi Zhu) [s. Kalinke II p. 49], but similar / aber hnlich
郭店 Guōdin + 馬王堆 Mǎwngduī B!

*** "It is true essence of simplicity to be well-nigh 'dirtied' " = "Someone with true essence of simplicity 'does not brag' about his true essence. That is why it is 'dirtied' " / "Es ist die wahre Essenz der Schlichtheit, fast wie 'beschmutzt' zu sein

(= Jemand mit der wahren Essenz der Schlichheit 'gibt nicht an' mit seiner wahren Essenz. Darum ist es "'beschmutzt' ").

Wng B  王弼 commentary / Wagner, 2003 p. 262 + 468]. {to brag / prahlen cf. 22.07. + 24.02. + 30.05.

41.d
069
084

Greatest Talents, Biggest Forms

Grte Talente, grte Formen

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

41.14.
069
072

大方
d fāng

無隅,
w y,

great_(-est) / gro (grte).

square(-s) / Viereck(-e).

without (no) {non-being, nothing_(-ness) [ / ohne (kein) {nicht-sein, Nichts}.

corner(-s) / Ecke(-n).

Greatest squares
seem
without corners,

Grte Vierecke
scheinen ohne Ecken,

Greatest square: without corners,

Grtes Viereck: ohne Ecken,

Need greatest squares no corner, sure,

Scheint grte Viereck eckenlos,

41.15.
073
076

大器
d q

晚成,
wǎn chng,

great_(-est) / gro (grte).

talent / Talent; lit.: vessels / Gefe.

late [end of a period] / spt  [Ende eines Zeitabschnitts].

mature_[-d] {completed} / gereift {vollendet}.

greatest talents {vessels}
late mature_
[-d] {completed},

grte Talente {Gefe}
spt gereift {vollendet},

greatest talent: late mature,

grtes Talent: spt gereift,

do greatest talents late mature,

sind grte Gaben spt erst gro,

41.16.
077
080

大音
d yīn

希聲,
xī shēng,

great_(-est) / gro (grte).

music {voice} / Musik {Stimme}.

silent  / still; or: rare, scarse (sparse); strange; void (of) / oder: selten, sprlich; seltsam; leer (an).

sound / Klang.

greatest music {voice}
in silent sound,

grte Musik {Stimme}
in
stillem Klang,

greatest voice: silent sound,

grte Musik: leisester Klang,

has greatest music silent sound,

die grte Stimme still erschallt,

41.17.
081
084

大象
d xing

無形。
w xng。

great_(-est) / gro (grte).

form {shape, appearance} / Form {Gestalt, Erscheinung}.

without (no) {non-being, nothing_(-ness) / ohne (kein) {nicht-sein, Nichts}.

contour (need no shape); {form, shape} / Umriss (bedrfen keiner Gestalt); {Form, Gestalt}.

greatest form
without
contour {need no shape}.

grte Formen
ohne Umriss {
bedrfen keiner Gestalt}.

greatest form: without shape.

grte Form: ohne Gestalt.

and greatest form no shape around.

und grte Form braucht nicht Gestalt.

 

 

 

 

 

 

41.e
085
095

Hidden Do's Completion

Des verborgenen Do's Vollendung

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

41.18.
085
088

道隱
do yǐn

無名,
w mng,

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

hidden / verborgen.

without (no) {non-being, nothing_(-ness) / ohne (kein) {nicht-sein, Nichts}.

name {designation} / Name {Bezeichnung}.

無名 name/less / namen/los; lit.: without name = unde-finable / ohne Namen = unerklrlich.

Do: hidden,
without
[any] name {name/less},

Do: verborgen,
ohne [irgendwelche] Namen {namen/los},

Do: hidden, nameless,

Do: verborgen, namenlos,

Just Do, so nameless and discreet,

Nur Do, namenlos verborgen,

41.19.
089
095

夫唯道
fū wi do

善貸
 shn di

且成。
qiě chng。

for {truly}/  denn {wahrlich}.*

only / nur.
夫唯 (initial particle) also: above all, because / vor allem (darber hinaus), weil; here: for only (just) / denn nur (gerade).

Do {Way} / Do {Weg}.

good / gut.

lending {providing} / gebend {versorgend}.

moreover / berdies.

completing / vollendend.

for {truly} only Do is
well-lending {good
at providing},
moreover completing.

denn {wahrlich} nur Do ist
gut geben
[= wohl-versorgend],
berdies vollendend.

truly, only Do is well-providing, moreover completing.

ja, nur Do versorgt gut und vollendet.

does well provide and does complete.

wird uns vollenden und umsorgen.

 

 

* (husband, man, worker); Classical chinese:  this, that, he she, they; final particle = exclamatory, initial particel (here) = introducing an opinion / (Ehemann, Mann, Arbeiter) hier: Klassisches Chinesisch: dies, jenes, er sie, sie (Plural), Anfangspartikel = ausrufend, Anfangs-Partikel (hier) = Meinung einfhrend.

41.05. - 41.17.: A poetical appoach to depict the inconceivable in form of mystic coincidentia oppositorum / eine poetische Annherung, das unbegreifliche in Form mystischer coincidentia oppositorum zu verbildlichen. [Ellen M. Chen, 1989 p. 154].

 

POETIC!

poetic!

 

+ Hn Fēizǐ  
韓非子 (280-233)

21 喻老第二十一

楚莊王莅政三年,無令發,無政為也。右司馬御座而與王隱曰: 「有鳥止南方之阜,三年不翅,不飛不鳴,嘿然無聲,此為何名?」王曰:「三年不翅, 將以(觀)長羽翼;不飛不鳴,將以觀民則。雖無飛,飛必沖天;雖無鳴,鳴必驚人。 子釋之,不穀知之矣。」

處半年,乃自聽政。所廢者十,所起者九,誅大臣五,舉處士六,而邦大治。 舉兵誅齊,敗之徐州,勝晉於河雍,合諸侯於宋,遂霸天下。莊王不為小害善,故有大名; 不蚤見示,故有大功。故曰:「大器晚成,大音希聲。」

 

 

 

 

http://www.tao-te-king.org/large-Blue-arrow-166.6-2393%5b1%5d.gif41, 01-04

上士聞道勤而行之;
shng sh wn do qn r xng zhī

中士聞道若存若亡;
zhōng sh wn do  ru cn  ru wng;

下士聞道大笑之
xi sh wn do d xio zhī

不笑不足以為道!
b xio b z yǐ wi do!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

老子 Lǎozĭ  道 德 經 Dodjīng 41, 01-04

Superior scholars hear of Do,
endeavor practising
it now;

hear medium scholars Do, then twisting:
"...is it or is it not existing?

inferior scholars hear of that
yet only laughing greatly at

not being laughed at, anyhow,
it's not enough to act as Do!

Erfhrt als hoch gebildet man
vom Do, bt man's eifrig dann;

der Durchschnitt hrt vom Do noch,
und schwankt: "Das gibt's nicht oder doch?!"

hrt Do nied're Bildung blo,
verlachen werden
sie es gro

nicht so verlacht: es knnte nun
nicht
mehr genug als Do tun!

上士聞道勤而行之;
shng sh wn do qn r xng zhī

中士聞道若存若亡;
zhōng sh wn do  ru cn  ru wng;

下士聞道大笑之
xi sh wn do d xio zhī

不笑不足以為道!
b xio b z yǐ wi do!

 

+ Hn Fēizǐ  韓非子 (280-233)  21 喻老第二十一

 King Chuang, for three years after he took the reins of government, issued no decree and formulated no policy. Therefore, one day the Right Commissioner of the Army, when attending on the Throne, made before the King an intimation, saying: "There is a bird which has perched on a hill-top in the south. For three years it has neither fluttered nor flown nor sung but kept silent without making any sound. What is the name of that bird?" In reply the King said: "For three years it has not fluttered in order thereby to grow its wings and feathers, and has neither flown nor sung in order thereby to look at the conditions of the people. Though it has not flown, yet once it starts flying, it will soar high up into the sky. Though it has not sung, yet once it starts singing, it will surprise everybody. Leave it as it has been. I, the King, understand what you mean."

 In the course of half a year, the King began to administer the state affairs himself, abolishing ten things, establishing nine things, censuring five chief vassals, and appointing six hitherto unknown personages to office, with the immediate result that the state became very orderly. In the meantime he raised an army to punish Ch`i and defeated them at Hs-chou. Then he triumphed over Chin at Ho-yung and called a conference of the feudal lords in Sung, till he attained Hegemony in All-under-Heaven. Thus, King Chuang never did good in a small way, wherefore he accomplished a great achievement. Hence the saying: "The largest vessel becomes complete slowly, the loudest sound is rarely heard."

Numbers = Notes in:

http://www2.iath.virginia.edu:8080/exist/cocoon/xwomen/texts/hanfei/d2.20/1/0/bilingual
 

Yē sū   Luke 58:5-8

5 A farmer went out to sow his seed. And as he was sowing, some seed fell along the path, where it was trampled, and the birds of the air devoured it.

6 Other seed fell on rocky ground, and when it came up, the seedlings withered because they had no moisture.

7 Other seed fell among the thorns, which grew up with it and choked the seedlings.

8 Still other seed fell on good soil, where it sprang up and produced a cropa hundredfold. As Jesus said this, He called out, He who has ears to hear, let him hear.

5 Es ging ein Semann aus, zu sen seinen Samen. Und indem er ste, fiel etliches an den Weg und ward zertreten und die Vgel unter dem Himmel fraen's auf.

6 Und etliches fiel auf den Fels; und da es aufging, verdorrte es, darum da es nicht Saft hatte.

7 Und etliches fiel mitten unter die Dornen; und die Dornen gingen mit auf und erstickten's.

8 Und etliches fiel auf ein gutes Land; und es ging auf und trug hundertfltige Frucht. Da er das sagte, rief er: Wer Ohren hat, zu hren, der hre!

5「有一個撒種的出去撒種。撒的時候,有落在路旁的,被人踐踏,天上的飛鳥又來吃盡了。 6 有落在磐石上的,一出來就枯乾了,因為得不著滋潤。

7 有落在荊棘裡的,荊棘一同生長,把它擠住了。8 又有落在好土裡的,生長起來,結實百倍。」耶穌說了這些話,就大聲說:「有耳可聽的,就應當聽!」

5`Yǒu yīg sā zhǒng de chūq sā zhǒng. Sā de shhu, yǒu lu zi l png de, bi rn jint, tiānshng de fēiniǎo yu li chī jǐnle. 6 Yǒu lu zi pnsh shng de, yī chūli ji kūgānle, yīn wi d bzho zīrn. 7 Yǒu lu zi jīngj lǐ de, jīngj yītng shēngzhǎng, bǎ tā jǐ zhle. 8 Yu yǒu lu zi hǎo tǔ lǐ de, shēngzhǎng qǐli, jiēshi bǎibi.'Yēsū shuōle zhxiē hu, ji d shēng shuō:`Yǒu ěr kě tīng de, ji yīngdāng tīng!'

 

41
001
095

 

sum:

2758

第四十一章
d s sh yī zhāng

Unscheinbares Do

Unimposing Do

 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

 

北大 Běi D 41

B: 上士聞道堇能             
     中士聞道若存若亡
     下士聞道    大笑之
         笑不        足以為道                                       [弗笑不]
     建言有之明道如沬

         進道退夷道
     上德大白廣德不足建德
     大方無隅大器大音希聲
     象無形無名夫唯道善貣且   

 

馬王堆 Mǎwngduī  41

M: □ □  □  □      □  □  □  □               
      □  □ □  □      □  □  □  □      
      □ □  □  □          □  □  □    
      □  □ □  □      □  □  □              
      □  □ □  □  □  □      □  □  □  □     

          □ □  □  □      □  □  □  □      
      □ □  □  □      □  □  □  □      □  □  □  □  □      □  □ □ □      
      □ □  □  □      □  □  □  □      □  □  □  □      □  □ □  □    
      □ □  □  □      □  □  □  □      □  □  □  □  □ □   

 

馬王堆 Mǎwngduī  41

m: □ □     堇能行之              
     中士聞道    若存若亡   
     下士聞道
        大笑之   
             以為道   
     建言有之    明道       

     進道退    夷道   
     上德    大白如辱    廣德不足    建德    
     □ □  □     大方無    大器    大音希聲   
     象無    無名 夫唯道    且善成    

 

郭店 Guōdin B5 = 41

G: 上士聞道堇能    其中
     中士聞道若亡
     下士聞道    大笑之
     弗大笑    足以為道
     是以建言    明道女費

         遲道         道若退
     上德大白廣德不足建德    
      □ 大方大器大音希聖
     天象                                                   

 

 

王弼 Wng B 41

W:上士聞道    勤而行之          
     中士聞道    若存若亡
     下士聞道
        大笑之
         不笑不        足以為道   
         建言有之    明道若

         進道若退夷道若
     上德若谷大白若辱廣德若不足建德若偷
     質真若渝大方無隅大器晚成大音希聲
     大象無形道隱無名夫唯道    善貸且   

 

河上公 Hshng Gōng 41

H: 上士聞道勤而行之          
     中士聞道若存若亡
     下士聞道    大笑之
        
不笑        足以為道  
         建言有之    明道若

         進道若退夷道若
     若谷若辱若不足若偷
    
若渝大方無隅大器晚成大音希聲
    
大象無形道隱無名善貸且   

 

傅奕 F Y 41

F: 上士聞道勤而行之         
     中士聞道若存若亡
     下士聞道大笑之
 
        不笑不        足以為道   
         建言有之曰明道若

         夷道若道若退
     上徳若谷大白若袌廣徳若不足建徳若
     質眞若大方無隅大器晚成大音
     大象無形道隱無名夫唯道    善貸且   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raw texts s. below / Rohtexte s. unten!

2016 Hilmar Alquiros

 

           
 

Raw texts / Rohtexte:

+ New Discoveries:   1 2 3 4 5

G:  Guōdin  郭店 ~ -300
M: 
Mǎwngduī  馬王堆 A < -
206
m: 
Mǎwngduī  馬王堆 B
< -179
B:  Běi D 北大  ~ -150, ~ -100

 

~ Textus Receptus:    1 2 3 4 5

W: Wng B  王弼 (226249) < +250
H:  Hshng Gōng  河上公  > +100
F:
  F Y  傅奕 (554−639) +574 / < -202

 

+ Hn Fēizǐ  韓非子 (280-233) - W. K. Liao: * in: The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzŭ with Collected Commentaries, April 1939. [Link].

 Ch. XX. Commentaries on Lao Tzŭ's Teachings:  = DDJ 38, 58, 59, 60, 46, 14, 01, 50, 67, 53, 54
 
Ch. XXI. Illustrations of Lao Tzŭ's Teachings.* = DDJ 46, 54, 26, 36, 63, 64, 52, 71, 64, 47, 41, 33, 27

 

B:上士聞道,堇能行;中士聞道,若存若亡;下士聞道,大笑之。弗笑,不足以為道。是以建言有之曰:明道如沬,進道如退,夷道如類;上德如谷,大白如辱,廣德如不足,建德如榆,桎真如䩱,大方無隅,大器勉成,大音希聲,天象無形,道殷無名。夫唯道,善貣且成。
堇(勤), 沬(昧), 辱(𪑾), 榆(偷), 桎(質), 䩱(渝), 勉(晚), 天(大), 貣(貸、始).

M:□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□
□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□
□□□□□□□□□□□□□□道善□□□□

m:上□□道堇能行之中士聞道若存若亡下士聞道大笑之弗笑□□以為道‧是以建言有之曰明道如費進道如退夷道如類上德如浴大白如辱廣德如不足建德如□質□□□大方無禺大器免成大音希聲天象無刑道褒無名‧夫唯道善始且善成

G(B5):上士聞道,堇能行於其中。中士聞道,若聞若亡。下士聞道,大笑之。弗大笑,不足以為道矣。是以建言又之:明道女費,遲道女??[]道若退。上德如浴,大白女辱,廣德女不足。建德女[□ □]貞女愉。大方亡禺,大器曼成,大音希聖。天象亡型,道。

W:上士聞道勤而行之。中士聞道若存若亡。下士聞道大笑之。不笑不足以為道。故建言有之。明道若昧。進道若退。夷道若纇。上德若谷。大白若辱。廣德若不足。建德若偷。質真若渝。大方無隅。大器晚成。大音希聲。大象無形。道隱無名。夫唯道善貸且成。

H:上士聞道,勤而行之。中士聞道,若存若亡。下士聞道,大笑之。不笑不足以為道。故建言有之:明道若昧,進道若退,夷道若纇。上德若谷,大白若辱,廣德若不足,建德若偷,質真若渝,大方無隅,大器晚成,大音希聲,大象無形,道隱無名。夫惟道,善貸且成。

F:上士聞道,而勤行之。中士聞道,若存若亡。下士聞道,而大笑之,不笑不足以爲道。故建言有之曰,明道若昧,夷道若類,進道若退,上徳若谷,大白若袌,廣徳若不足,建徳若婾,質眞若輸,大方無隅。大器晩成。大音稀聲。大象無形。道隱無名,夫惟道善貸且成。

 

 

 

 

Mǎwngduī: ch. 1-37 after 38-81; 24 before 22 + 23, 41 before 41, 80+81 after 66.

Mǎwngduī: Kap. 1-37 nach 38-81; 24 vor 22 + 23, 41 vor 41, 80+81 nach 66.

 

41

Etymological Notes:

 

Simple pictograph 上(丄𠄞). A mark above the line indicating up.

Simple pictograph 士. Possibly Meaning: 一 one of something pronounced like 十. Meaning: a man, gentleman, (old): scholar.

From ear 耳 and phonetic (also Meaning: a door which can be heard through) 门門. Meaning: to hear.

Composition:Bottom-left: 辶 chu walk; walking; KangXi radical 162 ; top-right: 首shǒu head; first; leader chief; a poem. path road street; method way. The motion of thoughts which are diverse; traveling though life with ones attention on the duality of unity with nature the head in motion.

From strength 力 and phonetic (also Meaning: yellow earth) 堇. Meaning: industrious.

Simple pictograph 而. (1) sometimes remnant of a beard. (2) sometimes a remnant of a root.(3) sometimes a man.

Originally 行 was a crossroad somtimes indicated by the left half 彳or the right half 亍. It indicates motion or something seen on the street or in public. Simple pictograph 行. Is the intersection of two roads. Meaning: to walk.

Simple pictograph 之㞢𡳿. Augmentation of foot 止 going forward from 一. Originally indicating to go forward.

From sun or day 日 and remnant 六 (originally meant a yurt) and phonetic (also Meaning: cover) 冖. Meaning: dark.Simple pictograph 中. A line through a squair indicating center 中. Originally a pictograph of 综.

The motion of thoughts which are diverse; traveling though life with ones attention on the duality of unity with nature the head in motion.

Cursive remnant 若. From remnant hair 艹 (not grass) and hands * primping the hair 口 added later. Original Meaning: to primp.

Cursive remnant 存. From baby 子 and phonetic 才. Meaning: to exist. (see 在) *

Simple pictograph 亡. A man in a tomb. Meaning: death or not seen.

Simple pictograph 下(丅𠄟). A mark below the line. Meaning: down.

The motion of thoughts which are diverse; traveling though life with ones attention on the duality of unity with nature the head in motion.

Simple pictograph 大. Front prifile of a man 大. Meaning: large.

From bamboo 竹 and phonetic 夭. Meaning: to laugh(note: old Chinese bamboo slat books)

Simple pictograph. Unclear origin. Possibly a root which us pulled up and is thus NOT there. Meaning: no.

Simple pictograph 足. From remanat 口 (top of leg) and foot 止. Meaning: foot.

Simple pictograph 以. Usually a pictograph of a mouth often making some kind of sound. Borrowed for sound. Meaning: by means of.Simple pictograph 以. g by means of.

From mouth 口 (character created for sound) and phonetic 矢 borrowed for sound. Meaning: to know.

Composition:Bottom-left: 辶 chu walk; walking; KangXi radical 162 ; top-right: 首shǒu head; first; leader chief; a poem. path road street; method way. The motion of thoughts which are diverse; traveling though life with ones attention on the duality of unity with nature the head in motion.

From hand 攵攴 and phonetic (also Meaning: ancient) 古. Original Meaning: ancient and reason.

From road 廴 and plan (to write down) 聿. Meaning: to establish.

Simple pictograph 言. Upside down man 立 and a mouth 口. Meaning: a man talking to you. Meaning: word.

Compound pictograph 有. From a hand *又 holding some meat 月肉. Meaning: to have.

From window at night (not sun) 日囱 and moon 月. Meaning: bright.

Composition:Bottom-left: 辶 chu walk; walking; KangXi radical 162 ; top-right: 首shǒu head; first; leader chief; a poem. path road street; method way. The motion of thoughts which are diverse; traveling though life with ones attention on the duality of unity with nature the head in motion.

From sun or day 日(which may be hidden) and phonetic 未. Meaning: obscure.

Substitution phonetic 进(t進)(a𨙟). From walking on a road 辶辵(彳止) and phonetic 井. Meaning: to advance.

Composition:Bottom-left: 辶 chu walk; walking; KangXi radical 162 ; top-right: 首shǒu head; first; leader chief; a poem. path road street; method way. The motion of thoughts which are diverse; traveling though life with ones attention on the duality of unity with nature the head in motion.

退 From walking on a road 辶辵(彳止) and phonetic 艮. Meaning: to retreat.

From person 大 and 弓( unclear prossibly some kind of clothing)

Composition:Bottom-left: 辶 chu walk; walking; KangXi radical 162 ; top-right: 首shǒu head; first; leader chief; a poem. path road street; method way. The motion of thoughts which are diverse; traveling though life with ones attention on the duality of unity with nature the head in motion.

silk; KangXi radical 120 + 15 strokes = knot; blemish flaw wicked

From road 彳 and phonetic 悳. Meaning: ethics. (悳 means to go have a straight 直 heart 心)

Radical:谷+ 0 strokes = 7 strokes total. valley gorge ravine Radical:谷+ 0 strokes = 7 strokes total.

Composition:Top-left: 广 wide extensive broad; rad. 53 bottom-right: yellow = broad wide extensive.

From person 亻人 and phonetic 俞. Meaning: a thief.

Deletion remnant 质(t質). From 贝貝 and two axes 斦. Meaning: matter.

Compound pictograph 真. From straight 直 placed on a table for people to see that it is real. Meaning: real. (see other etymologies 鼎)

shuǐ water river +9. Change.

Simple pictograph 白. Of a white cotton bobin. Meaning: white.

From hand 寸 and plow 辰. Meaning: humiliate. (possibly from low level work)

Simple pictograph 方. (1) a 弋规 and 工矩 usd to make something square. 没有规矩 不成方圆 (2) looks like a man with a squair board around his head 枷锁 used for punishmant. Meaning: squair.

無 w m  火+ 8 strokes  negative no not; lack have no Simple pictograph Meaning: nothing. [无無. A dancer also pronounced wu. Borrowed for sound.]

From wall 阝阜 and phonetic 禺. Meaning: corner.

From mouth 口 (Meaning: pottery) false cognate 犬 originally a man who sells pottery. Meaning: vessels.

From wall 阝阜 and phonetic 禺. Meaning: corner.

Simple pictograph 成. From 5th celestial stem (a weapon) 戊 and phonetic (also Meaning: nail) 丁. Meaning: complete.

Simple pictograph 音. A mouth 曰 and an upside down man 立 speaking to you. Meaning: sound.

Simple pictograph 希. A cloth 巾 and cross threads 乂. Meaning: thin or rare.

Deletion remnant 声(t聲). From a hanging chime 声(磬) and hand indicating to be hit 殳 and heard with the ear 耳. (See 石). Meaning: sound.

Simple pictograph 象. An elephant.

From lines 彡 and phonetic 开井. Meaning: shape.

From wall 阝阜 and phonetic 急. Meaning: secret.

From moon 夕 and mouth 口. Meaning: name. (to say 口 your name at night 夕 so people will know who you are)

Augmented pictograph 夫. Augmentation 一 and man 大. Meaning: husband or important man.

From mouth 口 (character created for sound) and phonetic 隹. Meaning: yes.

Simple pictograph 善. From say a lot 誩 and goat 羊 (offering). Meaning: virtuous.

From cowry 贝貝 and phonetic 代. Meaning: to borrow or lend.

Simple pictograph 且. An ancesteral tablet placed on the altar.

 

Sources:

http://www.thetao.info/tao/big5.htm,

http://ctext.org/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=%E4%B9%8D

https://chinese.yabla.com/chinese-english-pinyin-dictionary.php?define=%E4%B9%8D

http://www.chineseetymology.org/CharacterEtymology.aspx?submitButton1=Etymology&characterInput=%E4%BD%9C  [and more].

 

 

Literature:

Běi D 北大 ~ -150, ~ -100.

Dodjīng 道德經 ~ -400) by → 老子 Lǎozĭ.

F Y 傅奕 (555−639) 574 / < -202.

Guōdin 郭店 ~ -300.

Hn Fēizǐ 韓非子 (-280-233) ch. 20+21.

Hshng Gōng 河上公 > 100 .

Kǒng fū zǐ 孔夫子 (Confucius / Konfuzius).

Lǎozĭ 老子~ -400: Dodjīng 道德經.

Lizǐ 列子 ~ -440-360, ~ -350.

Ln yǔ 論語 = Analects by 孔夫子 Kǒng fū zǐ (Confucius / Konfuzius).

Mǎwngduī 馬王堆 A < -206.

Mǎwngduī 馬王堆 B < -179.

Wng B 王弼 (226249) < 250.

Y Jīng (Book of Change) .

Zhuāngzǐ (-369-286) .

 

北大 Běi D ~ -150, ~ -100.

道德經 Dodjīng by 老子 Lǎozĭ.

傅奕 F Y (-554−639 +574 / < -202 .

郭店 Guōdin ~ -300.

韓非子 Hn Fēizǐ (-280-233).

河上公 Hshng Gōng > 100 .

孔夫子 Kǒng fū zǐ (Confucius / Konfuzius).

老子 Lǎozĭ ~ -400: Dodjīng 道德經.

列子 Lizǐ ~ -440-360 ~ -350.

Ln yǔ = Analects 孔夫子 Kǒng fū zǐ Confucius / Konfuzius.

馬王堆 Mǎwngduī A < -206.

馬王堆 Mǎwngduī B < -179.

王弼 Wng B (226249) < 250.

Y Jīng (Book of Change) .

莊子 Zhuāngzǐ (-369-286) .

 

 

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